Drewyer and myself completed the opperation of rendering the tallow; we obtained about 100 lbs. by evening the skins were all attatched to their sections and I returned them again to the water. all matters were now in readiness to commence the opperation of puting the parts of the boat together in the morning. the way strips are not yet ready but will be done in time as I have obtained the necessary timber. the difficulty in obtaining the necessary materials has retarded my operations in forming this boat extreemly tedious and troublesome; and as it was a novel peice of machinism to all who were employed my constant attention was necessary to every part of the work; this together with the duties of cheif cook has kept me pretty well employed. at 3 P.M. Capt.
This morning the men again were sent to bring in some more meat which Drewyer had killed yesterday, and continued the opperation of drying it. I amused myself in fishing, and sleeping away the fortiegues of yesterday.
The Clatsop left us this morning at 11 A.M. not anything transpired dureing the day worthy of notice. yesterday we completed the opperation of drying the meat, and think we have a Sufficient Stock to last us this month. the Indians inform us that we shall have great abundance of Small fish in March. which from the discription must be the Herring.
I hastened the repairs which were necessary to the perogue and canoe which were compleated by 2 P.M. those not engaged about this business employed themselves as yester-day. at 4 in the evening it clouded up and began to rain which puting a stop to the opperation of skindressing we had nothing further to detain us, I therefore directed the vessels to be loaded and at 5 P.M. got under way the wind has blown very hard all day but did not prove so much so this evening as absolutely to detain us. we decended this evening as low nearly as the entrance of white Earth river and encamped on the S. W. side. the musquetoes more than usually troublesome this evening.
Fields & P. Wiser with him for the flesh. we made Several attempts to exchange our Stalions for Geldings or mars without success we even offered two for one. those horses are troublesom and Cut each other very much and as we Can't exchange them we think it best to Castrate them and began the opperation this evening one of the Indians present offered his Services on this occasion. he Cut them without tying the String of the Stone as is usial. he Craped it very Clean & Seperate it before he Cut it. about Meredian Shannon Came in with two Grows & 2 Squireles Common to this Country. his mockersons worn out obliged to come in early.
every thing which is incomprehensible to the indians they call big medicine, and is the opperation of the presnts and power of the great sperit. this morning one of the men shot the indian dog that had followed us for several days, he would steal their cooked provision.
Capt Clark recommended this rout to me from a belief that the river as soon as it past the mountains boar to the N. of W. he having a few days before ascended these mountains to a position from which he discovered a large valley passing betwen the mountains and which boar to the N. West. this however poved to be the inlet of a large creek which discharged itself into the river just above this range of mountans, the river bearing to the S. W. we were therefore thrown several miles out of our rout. as soon as we discovered our mistake we directed our course to the river which we at length gained about 2 P.M. much exhausted by the heat of the day the roughnes of the road and the want of water. the mountains are extreemly bare of timber and our rout lay through the steep valleys exposed to the heat of the sun without shade and scarcely a breath of air; and to add to my fatiegue in this walk of about 11 miles I had taken a doze of glauber salts in the morning in consequence of a slight desentary with which I had been afflicted for several days; being weakened by the disorder and the opperation of the medecine I found myself almost exhausted before we reached the river.
Set out early this morning, the frost was severe last night, the ice appeared along the edge of the water, water also freized on the oars. at the distance of one mile passed the entrance of a creek 15 yds. wide on Stard. side, this we call Teapot Creek, it affords no water at it's mouth but has runing water at some small distance above, this I beleive to be the case with many of those creekes which we have passed since we entered this hilley country, the water is absorbed by the earth near the river and of course appear dry; they afford but little water at any rate, and that is so strongly impregnated with these salts that it is unfit for uce; all the wild anamals appear fond of this water; I have tryed it by way of experiment & find it moderately pergative, but painfull to the intestens in it's opperation. this creek runs directly towards some low mountains which lye N. W. of it and appear to be about 30 mes. distant, perhaps it heads in them.
This process seams to be continued longer with their female than their male children, and neither appears to Suffer any pain from the opperation. it is from this peculiar form of the head that the nations East of the Rocky Mountains, call all the nations on this Side, except Aliahtans, So-so-ne, or Snake Indians by the General name of Flat Heads.
In the year 1771 Anna Green Winslow wrote in her diary an account of one of these elaborate hair-dressings which she then saw. She ends her description thus: "How long she was under his opperation I know not.