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They thus contain an inexhaustible store of the mineral foods of plants, and in a form made easily ready for plant use. On the preglacial hillsides the humus layer must have been comparatively thin, while the broad glacial plains have gathered deep black soils, rich in carbon and nitrogen taken from the atmosphere.

Marl improves the physical condition of stiff soils only when used in large amount per acre, and this is true of any carbonate form, such as limestone. Little effect upon physical condition should be expected from the light application usually given when marl is purchased and transported some distance to the farm.

It is one of the most distinct and interesting of hardy shrubs, the deep olive-green of both stem and leaves, and abundantly-produced and curiously-shaped racemes, rendering it a conspicuous object wherever planted. Perfectly hardy, and of free, almost rampant growth in any but the stiffest soils. Cuttings root freely and grow rapidly. Japan, 1861.

We say that some plants are consumed by heat, that some soils are indomitable, that well cultivated ground is no longer wild, that in a good season the whole landscape smiles and leaps for joy. A river is called malevolent, and a lake swallows up men; the earth is thirsty and sucks up moisture, and plants fear the cold.

In fact I can grow only ten to fifteen bushels of wheat per acre once in ten years, whereas he grew from twenty-five to forty bushels per acre in a five-year rotation; and I don't see that there is any particular connection between the growing of wheat seedlings in small pots or bottles for a few twenty-day periods and the growing of crops in soils during successive seasons.

On those soils which must be tilled, even where they tend to wash away, the aim should be to keep the detritus open to such a depth that it may take in as much as possible of the rainfall, yielding the water to the streams through the springs. This end can generally be accomplished by deep ploughing; it can, in almost all cases, be attained by under-drainage.

These lands are included in the boundaries of 171 reservations of different dimensions, scattered in 21 States and Territories, presenting great variations in climate and in the kind and quality of their soils. Among the Indians upon these several reservations there exist the most marked differences in natural traits and disposition and in their progress toward civilization.

You can take that map and pick out any kind of land you want, upland or bottom land, sandy soil, clay soil, loam, silt loam, or anything you want." "SHOW this gentleman to the Bureau of Soils," said the Secretary to the boy who came as he pushed a button.

As a practical measure to relieve the stress of the older districts a beginning was made in seed selection, manuring and crop rotation to enhance the harvests; horses were largely replaced by mules, whose earlier maturity, greater hardihood and longer lives made their use more economical for plow and wagon work; the straight furrows of earlier times gave place in the Piedmont to curving ones which followed the hill contours and when supplemented with occasional grass balks and ditches checked the scouring of the rains and conserved in some degree the thin soils of the region; a few textile factories were built to better the local market for cotton and lower the cost of cloth as well as to yield profits to their proprietors; the home production of grain and meat supplies was in some measure increased; and river and highway improvements and railroad construction were undertaken to lessen the expenses of distant marketing.

Layers of sandstone or of shale containing this decayed vegetable alternate with layers which contain none; and if, as seems probable, the coaly matter is continually changing into asphalt and oil, and then working its way upward through every crack and pore, to escape from the enormous pressure of the superincumbent soil, it must needs carry up with it innumerable particles of the soils through which it passes.