To be a successful fruit-grower in Queensland one must therefore use one's brains as well as one's hands; the right tree must be grown in the right kind of soil and under the right conditions; it must be properly attended to, and the fruit, when grown, must be marketed in the best possible condition, whether same be as fresh fruit or dried, canned, or otherwise preserved, and whether same be destined for our local, Australian, or oversea markets.
But it was soon found that the average fruit-grower would not take the trouble to spray his trees, largely from the fact that he had experimented for some years with inferior washes and quack nostrums, and from lack of success had become disgusted with the whole idea of using liquid compounds. Something easier, something more radical was necessary in his disheartened condition.
These cities are also well situated for manufacturing, because coal and wood are plentiful and consequently cheap, but they have not in their immediate vicinity so extensive agricultural valleys as the Willamette and the Great Valley of California. The lumberman must be supplanted by the farmer and fruit-grower before the slopes about Puget Sound can be fully developed.
One fruit-grower on the Hudson told me he lost at least a ton of grapes by the birds, and in the western part of New York and in Ohio and in Canada, I hear the vineyards suffered severely from the depredations of the oriole. The oriole has a sharp, dagger-like bill, and he seems to be learning rapidly how easily he can puncture fruit with it. He has come to be about the worst cherry bird we have.
When private enterprise invests many thousands of pounds in the building of jetties and tram-lines to facilitate the shipment of fruit, evidence in support of these statements is unnecessary. The prosperity of the farmer and fruit-grower in North Queensland does not unhaply depend upon himself, but upon the existence of large populations within reasonable range.
In this way orchard after orchard of oranges, worth a thousand dollars or more an acre, was utterly destroyed; the best fruit-growing sections of the State were invaded, and ruin stared many a fruit-grower in the face. This spread of the pest was gradual, extending through a series of years, and not until 1886 did it become so serious a matter as to attract national attention.
The upper story contained four or five guest-rooms which were rarely put to their destined use. Sometimes a fruit-grower, riding in from his plantation to confer with his agent, would pass a melancholy night in the dismal upper story; sometimes a minor native official on some trifling government quest would have his pomp and majesty awed by Madama's sepulchral hospitality.
Ordinarily the fruit-grower does not see the moth, for it is a small object amidst the foliage of apple-trees; the larva or apple-worm he knows well. There may be two or more broods of apple-worms, depending on the length of the season. In the northern apple regions of North America there is usually only one brood, with a partial second brood.
This decision he arrived at while sojourning in the home of a wealthy fruit-grower who was interested in the Nettle River project, and who furnished him a letter of recommendation to Orcutt, who promptly employed him. Thereafter all went well until McNabb's ultimatum brought the Nettle River project to as sudden a termination as the armistice had brought the war.
W. T. Swingle, and the insect was successfully established at Fresno in the San Joaquin Valley. A far-sighted fruit-grower, Mr. George C. Roeding, of Fresno, had planted some years previously an orchard of 5,000 Smyrna fig trees and wild fig trees, and his place was the one chosen for the successful experiment.