Peter and the Pope and his successors who should have been canonically elected; that he would be no party to violence against the Pope; that he would attend in person or by representatives at every synod to which the Pope summoned him; that, saving the rights of his Order, he would help to defend the Papacy and all its possessions and honours; that he would not betray any trust reposed in him by the Pope; that he would honourably treat the papal legate; that he would not knowingly communicate with excommunicates; that when asked he would faithfully help the Roman Church with a force of soldiers.

And again: "We cannot join a Church, did we wish it ever so much, which does not acknowledge our orders, refuses us the Cup, demands our acquiescence in image-worship, and excommunicates us, if we do not receive it and all the decisions of the Tridentine Council." His opponent answers these objections by referring to the doctrine of "developments of gospel truth."

All these prohibitions are so many positive interdictions, not only of the land, but of the air and water. We who belong to the proletaire class: property excommunicates us! Terra, et aqua, et aere, et igne interdicti sumus.

They, if you'll let me quote Colney Durance to you to-day and how is it he is not in favour? they are tempting the Lord to turn the pillars of Society into pillars of salt. Down comes the house. And priests can rest in sight of it! They ought to be dead against the sanctimony that believes it excommunicates when it curses.

Paul herewith curses and excommunicates all false teachers including his opponents. He is so worked up that he dares to curse all who pervert his Gospel. Would to God that this terrible pronouncement of the Apostle might strike fear into the hearts of all who pervert the Gospel of Paul. The Galatians might say: "Paul, we do not pervert the Gospel you have brought unto us.

"Hail to thee, King of England!" he said. "I bring the bull that excommunicates Harold and his adherents; I bring to thee the gift of the Roman Church, the land and royalty of England. I bring to thee the gonfanon hallowed by the heir of the Apostle, and the very ring that contains the precious relic of the Apostle himself! Now who will shrink from thy side?

Oedipus then, addressing the chorus, demands their aid to discover the murderer, whom he solemnly excommunicates, and dooms, deprived of aid and intercourse, to waste slowly out a miserable existence; nay, if the assassin should have sought refuge in the royal halls, there too shall the vengeance be wreaked and the curse fall. "For I," continued Oedipus,

Xavier endeavours all he can to gain the favour of the governor for the embassy. Endeavours are used in vain to get the governor's consent. The governor flies out into fury against the Father. The Father resolves to excommunicate the governor; and what he does in order to it. The grand vicar excommunicates the governor in the name of Xavier.

"I suppose any authority can excommunicate those below him, in the Church visible," said Bruno, calmly: "in the invisible Jerusalem above, which is the mother of us all, none excommunicates but God. `Every branch in Me, not fruit-bearing, He taketh it away. My daughters, it would do us more good to bear that in mind, than to blame either the Pope or the Archbishop."

Even when he had done what was demanded from him, the archbishop would not even take his name from the list of excommunicates, such was his hatred for Don Juan. Ab ira et odio et mala voluntate monachi dominici libera nos, Domine.