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Weight Distance Shot Alaskan....................... 80 pounds 180 yards Apache........................ 28 " 120 " Blackfoot..................... 45 " 145 " Cheyenne...................... 65 " 156 " Cree.......................... 38 " 150 " Esquimaux..................... 80 " 200 " Hupa.......................... 40 " 148 " Luiseno....................... 48 " 125 " Navajo........................ 45 " 150 " Mojave........................ 40 " 110 " Osage......................... 40 " 92 " Sioux......................... 45 " 165 " Tomawata...................... 40 " 148 " Yurok......................... 30 " 140 " Yukon......................... 60 " 125 " Yaki.......................... 70 " 210 " Yana.......................... 48 " 205 "

The Hupa word te-s-e-ya-te "I will go," for example, consists of a radical element -ya- "to go," three essential prefixes and a formally subsidiary suffix. The element te- indicates that the act takes place here and there in space or continuously over space; practically, it has no clear-cut significance apart from such verb stems as it is customary to connect it with.

In some of the tribes, such as the Hupa, for example, there existed no organization and no formalities in the government of the village. Formal councils were unknown, although the chief might and often did ask advice of his men in a collected body. In general the social structure of the California Indians was so simple and loose that it is hardly correct to speak of their tribes.

There are baskets made by every Indian tribe in North America, Navaho wedding baskets made by Paiutes and used also by Apaches as medicine baskets; Havasupai, Pima, Hopi, and Katchina plaques; Hupa and Poma carrying baskets; Haida, Makah, Mescalero, Apache, Mission, Chimehuevi, Washoe, and a score of others. Hopi Katchinas. In this collection are a large number of katchina dolls.

It is obvious that in Chinook, as in Hupa, the greater part of the grammatical machinery resides in the prefixes rather than in the suffixes. A reverse case, one in which the grammatically significant elements cluster, as in Latin, at the end of the word is yielded by Fox, one of the better known Algonkin languages of the Mississippi Valley.

"He who sets foot here dies!" came from a third voice. "This is the burial place of the great Hupa hupa! Back, if you value your life!" And then followed a jabbering nobody could understand, and white arms were waved wildly in the air. This warning was too much for Tad Sobber, and without further ado he took to his heels and retreated down the trail whence he had come.

Among the Hupa, another Indian tribe of California, when a girl had reached maturity her male relatives danced all night for nine successive nights, while the girl remained apart, eating no meat and blindfolded. But on the tenth night she entered the house and took part in the last dance.

The Hupa Indians are very typical of the culture area to which they belong. Culturally identical with them are the neighboring Yurok and Karok. There is the liveliest intertribal intercourse between the Hupa, Yurok, and Karok, so much so that all three generally attend an important religious ceremony given by any one of them.