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Gratian, a monk of Bologna, compiled a digest of the canon law on the model of that work, and soon afterward, incorporating with his writings the collections of prior authors, gave his "decretum" to the public in 1151.

The question itself is a very ancient subject of debate; the controversy, on religious grounds, concerning the study of the classics, had already continued for nearly a thousand years, and was destined to continue for centuries after the appearance of the Decretum. Many such questions were debated in the universities for generations.

Bracton, De Legibus et Consuetudinibus, i. 8, 5. Cf. Manegold, Ad Gebehardum, c. Cf. John of Salisbury, Policraticus, iii. 15, viii. 17, 18, 20. Cf. C. C. J. Webb's edition of John of Salisbury's Policraticus, introduction. Cf. Gratian, Decretum, D. iv. c. 3.

Roger, the bachelor, a monk of Bec, had already read lectures on the sister sciences in England, but he was advanced to the government of his abbey; and the English scholars, immediately after the publication of the decretum, crowded to the more renowned professors in the city of Bologna.

In one sense, therefore, a statement may be rhetorically exaggerated, even when the facts which support it are incontrovertible, as the remorseless logic of Calvin leads to deductions which no one fully believes, the decretum quidem horribile, as Calvin himself confessed. But is it easy to convict Mr.

In Paris, it was the cultivation of Logic, but chiefly the new method in Theology, ... developed in various ways especially by Abelard and other teachers, and extended by his contemporaries and their disciples ... which caused the revolution in the schools of that city. The earliest university text-book in Canon Law the "Decretum" of Gratian adopted this method, with some modifications.

The Middle Ages, alike in England and in France, as doubtless in Christendom generally, accepted the rule laid down in Gratian's Decretum, the great mediæval text-book of Canon Law, that "the husband may chastise his wife temperately, for she is of his household," but the wife might chastise her daughters and her servants, and she sometimes exercised that right in ways that we should nowadays think scarcely temperate.

In this mass of theological writings one book stands out as the contribution which for three centuries most influenced university instruction in theology. In not a few instances it adopts the form of presentation used in that book, i.e., the citation of authorities on both sides of the case. Like the Decretum of Gratian, it is an illustration of the widespread influence of the Sic et Non.

Twenty years subsequently, the monk Gratian collected together the various papal edicts, the canons of councils, the declarations of the Fathers and Doctors of the Church, in a volume called "The Decretum," considered as the earliest authority in canon law. In the next century Gregory IX. published five books of Decretals, and Boniface VIII. subsequently added a sixth.

His compilation of the Canon Law is usually referred to as the Decretum Gratiani. In the Faculty of Theology: 1. The "Sentences" of Peter Lombard. 2. The Bible. In the Faculty of Medicine: 1. The works of Hippocrates. 2. The works of Galen. 3. Medical treatises of various Arabic and Jewish writers of the seventh century A.D. and later.