Cf. 21. Liberti libertini. These words denote the same persons, but with this difference in the idea: libertus==the freedman of some particular master, libertinus==one in the condition of a freedman without reference to any master. At the time of the Decemvirate, and for some time after, liberti==emancipated slaves, libertini==the descendants of such, cf. Suet. Claud. 24. Quae regnantur.
Duellona and Bellona are the same. If Plutarch's account is true, the citizenship was sold to those libertini who were of the class Dediticii or Latini. It is difficult to conjecture what Cappadocian goddess Plutarch means, if it be not the Great Mother. There are some discrepancies between the narrative of these transactions in Plutarch and Appian. The reading Pictæ has been suggested.
For in him were combined cruelty, audacity, and rapaciousness, without any consideration of shame or of any crime, inasmuch as he sold the Roman citizenship to libertini and resident aliens, and publicly received the money at a table in the Forum.
The sales of confiscated property were conducted by him from his tribunal in such an arrogant and tyrannical manner, that his mode of dealing with the produce of the sales was more intolerable than the seizure of the property: he gave away to handsome women, players on the lyre, mimi and worthless libertini, the lands of whole nations and the revenues of cities; to some men he gave wives, who were compelled to marry against their will.
Hic sunt poetae Pacuvi Marci sita Ossa. Hoc volebam nescius ne esses. Vale. Accius's parents belonged to the class of libertini; they settled at Pisaurum. The poet began his dramatic career at the age of thirty with the Atreus, and continued to exhibit until his death.
He increased the number of the Senate to nine hundred, filling its ranks from eminent provincials; introducing even barbarian Gauls, and, still worse, libertini, the sons of liberated slaves, who had risen to distinction by their own merit.
The Syllan military proprietors had disappeared one by one they had fallen to beggary, and had sold their holdings, and again the country was parcelled into enormous estates cultivated by slave-gangs. The Italians had been emancipated, but the process had gone no further. The libertini, the sons of the freedmen, still waited for equality of rights.
That prisoners of war should be sold as slaves was the law of the time, accepted alike by victors and vanquished; and the crowds of libertini who assisted at Caesar's funeral proved that he was not regarded as the enemy of these unfortunates, but as their special friend. His leniency to the Pompeian faction has already been spoken of sufficiently.
Caesar, who was probably more alive to this kind of social danger than his contemporaries, sent out a great number of libertini, the majority, says Strabo, of his colonists, to his new foundation at Corinth . But Dionysius of Halicarnassus, writing in the time of Augustus, when he stayed some time in Rome, draws a terrible picture of the evil effects of indiscriminate manumission, unchecked by the law .
It was chiefly Hellenists, or proselytes, habitués of the synagogue, called Libertini, people of Cyrene, of Alexandria, of Cilicia, of Ephesus, who took an active part in these disputes. Stephen passionately maintained that Jesus was the Messiah, that the priests had committed a crime in putting him to death, that the Jews were rebels, sons of rebels, people who rejected evidence.