* They were composed of the forces who had been in garrison at Tournay and Dendermonde when those places were taken, and engaged by capitulation, that they should not perform any military function before the first day of January, in the year 1747; so they could not have acted in England without the infringement of a solemn treaty.

Position of Orange The interview at Dendermonde The supposititious letters of Alava Views of Egmont Isolation of Orange Conduct of Egmont and of Horn Confederacy, of the nobles dissolved Weak behavior of prominent personages Watchfulness of Orange Convocation of States General demanded Pamphlet of Orange City of Valenciennes refuses a garrison Influence of La Grange and De Bray City, declared in a state of siege Invested by Noircarmes Movements to relieve the place Calvinists defeated at Lannoy and at Waterlots Elation of the government The siege pressed more closely Cruelties practised upon the country people Courage of the inhabitants Remonstrance to the Knights of the Fleece Conduct of Brederode Orange at Amsterdam New Oath demanded by Government Orange refuses He offers his resignation of all offices Meeting at Breda New "Request" of Brederode He creates disturbances and levies troops in Antwerp Conduct of Hoogstraaten Plans of Brederode Supposed connivance of Orange Alarm at Brussels Tholouse at Ostrawell Brederode in Holland De Beauvoir defeats Tholouse Excitement at Antwerp Determined conduct of Orange Three days' tumult at Antwerp suppressed by the wisdom and courage of Orange.

Through this artificial channel so soon as Ghent and Dendermonde had fallen came floats of timber, fleets of boats laden with provisions of life and munitions of death, building-materials, and every other requisite for the great undertaking, all to be disembarked at Kalloo.

"Your Commons observe, in the first place, that several towns and places are, by virtue of this treaty, to be put into the hands of the States General, particularly Nieuport, Dendermonde, and the castle of Ghent, which can in no sense be looked upon as part of a barrier against France, but being the keys of the Netherlands towards Britain, must make the trade of your Majesty's subjects in those parts precarious, and whenever the States think fit, totally exclude them from it.

You have done a thing, O Prince, than which there is nothing greater either in ancient or modern story. It has often occurred, while a general was besieging one city that he lost another situate farther off. But you, while besieging Antwerp, have reduced simultaneously Dendermonde, Ghent, Nymegen, Brussels, and Mechlin."

There are few successful commanders on whom Fame has shone so unwillingly as upon John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, victor of Blenheim, Ramilies, Oudenarde, and Malplaquet, captor of Liege, Bonn, Limburg, Landau, Ghent, Bruges, Antwerp, Oudenarde, Ostend, Menin, Dendermonde, Ath, Lille, Tourney, Mons, Douay, Aire, Bethune, and Bouchain; who never fought a battle that he did not win, and never besieged a place that he did not take.

In 1583 Dunkirk, Nieuport, Lindhoven, Steenbergen, Zutphen and Sas-van-Gent fell; in the spring of 1584 Ypres and Bruges were already in Spanish hands, and on the very day of William's death the fort of Liefkenshoek on the Scheldt, one of the outlying defences of Antwerp, was taken by assault. In August Dendermonde, in September Ghent, surrendered.

The cities of Flanders and Brabant he determined to reduce by gaining command of the Scheldt. The five principal ones Ghent, Dendermonde, Mechlin, Brussels Antwerp, lie narrow circle, at distances from each other varying from five miles to thirty, and are all strung together by the great Netherland river or its tributaries.

The figure of the dead commander of the old Spanish Legion, Don Pedro Pacchi, who had fallen a few months before at the siege of Dendermonde was seen charging in front of his regiment, clad in his well-known armour, and using the gestures which had been habitual with him in life.

He could bring into the field perhaps eight or ten thousand men over and above the necessary garrisons. He had before him Brussels, Antwerp, Mechlin, Ghent, Dendermonde, and other powerful places, which he was to subjugate. Here was a problem not easy of solution.