The last mentioned strata consist of dark-coloured micaceous flags, frequently calcareous, with a great thickness of shales, generally black, below them. The same beds are also seen at Builth, in Radnorshire, where they are interstratified with volcanic matter. Diplograpsus pristis, Hisinger. Rastrites peregrinus, Barrande. Scotland; Bohemia; Saxony. Diplograpsus folium, Hisinger.

Blanford says, with regard to this group, that there is a remarkable resemblance in its physical aspect to the scenery of the Deccan and the higher valleys of the Western Ghats of India, but the peculiarities of the landscape are exaggerated in Abyssinia. Many of the trachytic beds are brecciated and highly columnar; sedimentary beds are also interstratified with those of volcanic origin.

At the Calera de los Huerfanos, only a quarter of a mile south of where I first met with the red sandstone, the crystalline white limestone is quarried: as this bed is the uppermost, and as it often passes into calcareous sandstone, interstratified with pure sand; and as the red sandstone likewise passes into soft white sandstone, and is also the uppermost bed, I believe that these two beds, though so different, are equivalents.

Whether they had been thus folded by the mechanical power of an advancing glacier, which had pushed before it a heap of stratified matter, as the glacier of Zermatt has been sometimes known to shove forward blocks of stone through the walls of houses, or whether the melting of masses of ice, once interstratified with sand and gravel, had given rise to flexures in the manner before suggested; it is at least satisfactory to have detected this new proof of a close connection between ice-action and contorted stratification, such as has been described as so common in the Norfolk cliffs and which is also very often seen in Scotland and North America, where stratified gravel overlies till.

No intermixture has been observed in those ancient river beds of any of the polished weapons, called "celts," or other relics of the more modern times, or of the second or Recent stone period, nor any interstratified peat; and the climate of those Pleistocene ages, when Man was a denizen of the north-west of France and of southern and central England, appears to have been much more severe in winter than it is now in the same region, though far less cold than in the glacial period which immediately preceded.

Air-breathers of the American Coal. Changes of Condition of Land and Sea indicated by the Carboniferous Strata of Nova Scotia. The next group which we meet with in the descending order is the Carboniferous, commonly called "The Coal," because it contains many beds of that mineral, in a more or less pure state, interstratified with sandstones, shales, and limestones.

Nevertheless, these greenstones appear to belong, like the lavas, to the Lower Silurian period. The Lingula beds in North Wales have been described as 5000 feet in thickness. In the upper portion of these deposits volcanic tuffs or ashy materials are interstratified with ordinary muddy sediment, and here and there associated with thick beds of feldspathic lava.

In many places, especially along the banks of the great streams, the gravel is smaller, obscurely interstratified with sand, and the flattened pebbles over-lap rudely, in a manner characteristic of the effects of running water; but such is not the case with the main body of the deposit, which is unstratified, and much coarser. Whence these pebbles were derived is a curious problem.

When I descended the river in 1859, a German Major of Engineers, in the employ of the Government, told me that he had found calcareous layers, thickly studded with marine shells interstratified with the clay.

This series, about 20,000 feet in thickness, is, as before stated, unconformable to that last mentioned; it consists in great part of gneiss of a reddish tint with orthoclase feldspar. Beds of nearly pure quartz, from 400 to 600 feet thick, occur in some places. Hornblendic and micaceous schists are often interstratified, and beds of limestone, usually crystalline. Beds of plumbago also occur.