The identity of many Scottish and Australian patterns is undenied, while I disclaim the opinion that, in each region, they had the same significance. I have now established the coincidence between the markings of rocks in Australia, in tropical America, and in Scotland. I have shown that such markings occur, in Scotland, associated with remains, in a crannog, of the Age of Iron.
One, from New Jersey, with two holes, exactly as in the Dunbuie example, was much akin in ornament to the Portuguese plaques. One, of slate, was plain, as plain as "a bit of gas coal with a round hole bored through it," recorded by Dr. Munro from Ashgrove Loch crannog.
She died at Restalrig on October 8, 510, and may have converted the Celts, who then dwelt in a crannog in the loch; at all events we hear that, in a very dry summer, the timbers of a crannog were found in the sandy deposit of the lake margin. The windows are blocked up with stones, the exterior is a mere mound of grass like a sepulchral tumulus.
Moreover, the appearance of an unique and previously unheard-of set of inscribed stones, in a site of the usual broch and crannog period, is not invariably ascribed to forgery, even by the most orthodox archaeologists. Thus Sir Francis Terry found unheard-of things, not to mention "a number of thin flat circular discs of various sizes" in his Caithness brochs.
This fact, together with the impossibility of living on a surface that is submerged every twelve hours, and the improbability of any land subsidence having taken place since prehistoric times, or any adequate depression from the shrinkage of the under-structures themselves, compels me to summarily reject the theory that the Dumbuck structure in its present form was an ordinary crannog.
I shall return to the theory that the stones were "ornaments"; meanwhile I proceed to the consideration of "cup-marks" on stones, large or small. These cups, or cupules, or ecuelles occur, not only at Dumbuck, but in association with a Scottish crannog of the Iron age, admirably described by Dr. The remainder of the stone, with the smaller part of the design, was not found.
Worlebury is remarkable for having a large number of pits sunk into the ground within its rampart. The remains of megalithic circles occur at Stanton Drew. There are barrows at Stoney Littleton, Dundry, and Priddy. There is a lake-village of the crannog type at Godney. The most interesting Roman remains are at Bath, where a splendid system of baths has been brought to light.
He tentatively suggests that the stones may have been used, perhaps, for the stone causeway now laid along the bank of the recently made canal, from a point close to the crannog to the railway. No record is cited. He now offers guesses as to the stones "in the so-called pavements and causeways." Though useless at high water, at low water it would afford better going.
For the present I omit some speculative passages as to the original purpose of the structure. "The so-called Dumbuck 'crannog, that being the most convenient name under which to describe the submarine wooden structures lately discovered by Mr. W. A. Donnelly in the estuary of the Clyde, lies about a mile to the east of the rock of Dumbarton, and about 250 yards within high-water mark.
It is clear that Cairnech was associated with Patrick in the famous revision of the Brehon Laws which became known as the Senchus Mor. It was natural that, in Cornish, his name should become Crannog, Latinised into Carantocus; in Wales it seems to have become Caranog.