He, therefore, O bull of Bharata's race, who betakes himself to this mode of life, thinking it to be his duty and abandoning all desire for fruit, is a real renouncer, and not that man of clouded understanding who goes to the woods, abandoning home and its surroundings. Those acts that are done from vanity, are said to be unproductive of fruit.
This, O son of Pritha, is my excellent and decided opinion. But there is none whatever for the renouncer. Listen from me, O thou of mighty arms, to those five causes for the completion of all actions, declared in the Sankhya treating of the annihilation of actions. With body, speech, or mind, whatever work, just or the reverse, a man undertakes, these five are its causes.
"Brahma is faultless and equable"; so Sreedhara and others, "since faultless equality is Brahma." The sense is that they are at one with Brahma both here and hereafter. Renouncer and devotee Sannyasin and Yogin. Which spring from desire. Self in this sloka is explained by the commentators as mind. The mind, unless controlled, cannot lead to devotion.
A person becomes a true renouncer by casting off every internal and external attachment, and not simply by abandoning home for dwelling in the woods. A Brahmana that lives in the observance of these ordinances in which there are no impediments, does not fall off from this or the other world.
That Brahmana who, disregarding wrath and joy, and especially deceitfulness, always employs his time in the study of the Vedas, is a renouncer in the observance of the vow of mendicancy. The four different modes of life were at one time weighed in the balance.
He who is conversant with duties is said to be omniscient or possessed of universal knowledge. Such a man is a Renouncer. Such a man is firm in the accomplishment of his purposes. Such a man is versed also in the Vedas and earnestly devoted to the study of the Soul. They that have true knowledge behold their own Soul as existing both in and out.
He is a great renouncer and he never disregards any one. For this he is everywhere worshipped with respect. He casts an equal eye on all; and, therefore, he has no one whom he loves and none whom he hates. He always speaks what is agreeable to the hearer. For this he is everywhere worshipped with respect. He is possessed of great learning in the scriptures.
Knowing this, O king, that the person who in sacrifices gives away his righteously acquired wealth unto those Brahmanas that are well conversant with the Vedas, and restrains his soul, is, O monarch, regarded as the true renouncer.
Although I am not so thorough a renouncer; yet let me have but good city security against this pestilent coinage, and I shall be ready not only to renounce every syllable in all my four letters, but to deliver them cheerfully with my own hands into those of the common hangman, to be burnt with no better company than the coiner's effigies, if any part of it hath escaped out of the secular hands of the rabble.
In this mode of life alone, O monarch, are the threefold aims to be attained. The renouncer that rigidly adheres to this mode of life, in which one is free to do all acts, has not to encounter ruin either here or hereafter. The sinless Lord of all creatures, of righteous soul, created creatures, with the intention that they would adore him by sacrifices with profuse presents.