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Quinoline, the first member of the higher series, had been made synthetically by several chemists, but by expensive and involved methods, when Skraup, in 1881, effected its synthesis from nitrobenzol and glycerin, or still better, a mixture of nitrobenzol and aniline with glycerin. This process allows of its being made on a commercial scale if desirable.

Professor Van t' Hoff, like other chemists, would certainly have rejected in fact, he did so at first such a conception, if, about the same time, an illustrious Swedish scholar, M. Arrhenius, had not been brought to the same idea by another road, and, had not by stating it precisely and modifying it, presented it in an acceptable form.

'It is curious, and not very creditable to our chemists, Merton said, 'that love philtres were once as common as seidlitz powders, while now we have lost that secret. The wrong persons might drink love philtres, as in the case of Tristram and Iseult. Or an unskilled rural practitioner might send out the wrong drug, as in the instance of Lucretius, who went mad in consequence.

When chemists have brought their knowledge out of their special laboratories into the laboratory of the world, where chemical combinations are and have been through all time going on in such vast proportions, when physicists study the laws of moisture, of clouds and storms, in past periods as well as in the present, when, in short, geologists and zoologists are chemists and physicists, and vice versa, then we shall learn more of the changes the world has undergone than is possible now that they are separately studied.

The land fell here and there into narrow, wild ravines and woody crevices. The soil of the park was not rich, and could give but little assistance to the chemists in supplying the plentiful food expected by Mr.

The two redoubtable captains were to be soldiers, sailors, explorers, geographers, ethnologists, botanists, geologists, chemists, diplomats, missionaries, financiers, and historians; also cooks, tailors, shoemakers, hunters, trappers, fishermen, scouts, woodcutters, boatbuilders, carpenters, priests, and doctors. From the time they left St.

Groups of botanists, chemists and arboriculturists study constantly tree diseases, methods of increasing the yield, and the other problems of growing fine trees that will produce high grade rubber. Here, by experiment and inspection, the secrets of the rubber tree are being brought to light, so much so that growers look to this plantation for leadership in methods of rubber culture.

To-morrow, not religion, not politics, but chemistry, not priests nor politicians, but chemists, would change all that and change it by the only methods that compel. An abstract idea of liberty or justice can be rejected, evaded, nullified. But a telephone, a steam engine, a mode of prolonging life those realizations of ideas compel.

The absurdity of such a theory is apparent when it is understood that long before any drug has been raised to its thirtieth dilution it has been so reduced in quantity that it cannot be weighed, measured, or recognized as being present in the solution at all by any means known to chemists.

Belgium, Holland, and Denmark had each in turn been affected. Despairing messages were flashing from every quarter to the great centres of learning, to the chemists and the doctors of world-wide repute, imploring their advice. The astronomers too were deluged with inquiries. Nothing could be done. The thing was universal and beyond our human knowledge or control.

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