The raw material is a coal-tar naphtha called toluene or toluol, which is also the raw material for saccharin, a sweetening agent made from coal-tar. This artificial indigo is proving a formidable rival to the natural product. The lichens thus treated acquire gradually a deep purple colour, and form the products called "cudbear."

The hydrocarbons dissolved by the acid were recovered by heating under pressure with hydrochloric acid. Besides a cymene and a toluene, which have already been shown to exist in rosin spirit, metaxylene was found to be present. Hexhydro-toluene and probably hex-hydrometaxylene are present besides the hydrocarbon, C10H20, but it is doubtful if an intermediate term is also present.

This, in its unrefined condition, is a light spirit which distils over at a point somewhat below the boiling point of water, but a delicate process of rectification is necessary to produce the pure spirit. Other products of the same light oils are toluene and xylene. Benzene of a certain quality is of course a very familiar and useful household supplement.

The so-called aniline colours are not all derived from aniline, such colouring matters being in some cases derived from other coal-tar products, such as benzene and toluene, phenol, naphthalene, and anthracene, and it is remarkable that although the earlier dyes were produced from the lighter and more easily distilled products of coal-tar, yet now some of the heaviest and most stubborn of the distillates are brought under requisition for colouring matters, those which not many years ago were regarded as fit only to be used as lubricants or to be regarded as waste.

It only remains to be said that for making Magenta, pure aniline will not do, what is used being a mixture of aniline, with an aniline a step higher, prepared from toluene. If I were to give you the formula of Magenta you would be astonished at its complexity and size, but I think now you will see that it is really built up of aniline derivatives.

Generally, too, with signal success. The discovery of benzene in 1825 by Faraday was followed in the course of a few years by its discovery in coal-tar by Hofmann. Toluene, which was discovered in 1837 by Pelletier, was recognised in the fractional distillation of crude naphtha by Mansfield in 1848.

Toluene, alcohol, and chloroform all dissolve atropine readily. Its double gold salt is very characteristic. It is generally precipitated in the form of an oil which solidifies rapidly and may be crystallized from hot water after the addition of a little hydrochloric acid.

The valuable constituents actually extracted are then these: benzene, toluene, xylene, naphthalene, anthracene, and phenol or carbolic acid. One ton of Lancashire coal, when distilled in gas retorts, yields about 12 gallons of coal-tar. Let us now learn what those 12 gallons of tar will give us in the shape of hydrocarbons and carbolic acid, mentioned as extracted profitably from tar.

The 12 gallons of tar yield 1-1/10 lb. of benzene, 9/10 lb. of toluene, 1-1/2 lb. of carbolic acid, between 1/10 and 2/10 lb. of xylene, 6-1/2 lb. of naphthalene, and 1/2 lb. of anthracene, whilst the quantity of pitch left behind is 69-1/2 lb.