He then proceeds with the mass, and gives communion to the ministers and the rest of the under the form of bread alone . Having received the ablutions, he returns to the table above mentioned, and awaits the coming of the procession of the priests, deacons, subdeacons etc.

The priests of Cranganore are not shaven in the same manner with ours, but shave the whole head, leaving a few hairs on the crown and they have both deacons and subdeacons. In consecrating the elements, they use leavened bread and wine made of raisins, having no other in the country. Their children are not baptized till they are eleven days old, unless they happen to be sickly.

That in virtue of an ancient and hitherto ineradicable practice, the Pope is assisted in the temporal government of his States by the spiritual chiefs, subalterns, and spiritual employés of his Church; that Cardinals, Bishops, Canons, Priests, forage pell-mell about the country; that one sole and identical caste possesses the right of administering both sacraments and provinces; of confirming little boys and the judgments of the lower courts; of ordaining subdeacons and arrests; of despatching parting souls and captains' commissions; that this confusion of the spiritual and the temporal disseminates among the higher offices a multitude of men, excellent no doubt in the sight of God, but insupportable in that of the people; often strangers to the country, sometimes to business, and always to those domestic ties which are the basis of every society; without any special knowledge, unless it be of the things of another world; without children, which renders them indifferent to the future of the nation; without wives, which renders them dangerous to its present; and to conclude, unwilling to hear reason, because they believe themselves participators in the pontifical infallibility.

The orders of priests and deacons are often mentioned in the N. Testament: and the church, as S. Thomas observes, instituted the inferior orders. Subdeacons are mentioned by Pope Cornelius and S. Cyprian in the 3rd century, as well as acolythes, exorcists, and lectors.

In the Ordo Romanus of Cencius Camerarius it is mentioned, that the Roman Pontiff after mass washed the feet of twelve subdeacons, and after dinner of 13 poor persons, or according to the Ordines Romani published by Mabillon, of 12 deacons. The Ceremoniale, attributed to Marcellus archbishop of Corcyra, prescribes that the Pope should wash the feet of thirteen poor men.

278 Q. What is the Sacrament of Holy Orders? A. Holy Orders is a Sacrament by which bishops, priests, and other ministers of the Church are ordained and receive the power and grace to perform their sacred duties. "Other ministers," means deacons and subdeacons, properly so-called.

Wherefore it is manifest, that beside those two orders of elders and deacons, there is no other ecclesiastical order which hath any divine institution, or necessary use in the church; and princes should do well to apply their power and authority to the extirpation and rooting out of popes, cardinals, patriarchs, primates, archbishops, bishops, suffragans, abbots, deans, vice-deans, priors, archdeacons, subdeacons, abbots, chancellors, chantors, subchantors, exorcists, monks, eremites, acoloths, and all the rabble of popish orders, which undo the church, and work more mischief in the earth than can be either soon seen or shortly told.

The obligation of reciting the office binds those in Holy Orders, even though they may be excommunicated, suspended, degraded or imprisoned. The obligation binds for the first time when subdeaconship has been conferred. Subdeacons are bound to recite "the hour" in the office of the day, corresponding to the time of their ordination.

The Roman Pontifical prescribes, that besides the bishop and the usual ministers, there should be present twelve priests, seven deacons, and seven subdeacons, all habited in white vestments.