They took Aleppo, then in the possession of the Hamdanites, and, encountering Saif ed-Dowlah, overthrew him also. The governor of Damascus, Dalim el-Ukazly, and ten thousand men came to the rescue of the Hamdanites, but Phocas beat a retreat on hearing of his approach. Abu'l-Hasan Ali died in the year 355 of the Hegira. The regent Kafur then ascended the throne, assuming the surname el-Ikshid.

Then my mistress fared forth bare faced wearing a head kerchief and naught else, and her daughters and the children sallied out with her, and said to me, "O Kafur, go thou before us and show us the place where thy master lieth dead, that we may take him from under the fallen wall and lay him on a bier and bear him to the house and give him a fine funeral."

To-morrow night you will be admitted, Malik Kafur, if you knock three times at my gate. "The fellow rose to his feet, with a servile and submissive smile, and, by a wave of my hand, I dismissed him from my presence.

During the reign of Kafur, which only lasted two years and four months, the greater portion of Said was seized by the Fatimites, already masters of Fayum and Alexandria, and the conquerors were on the point of encroaching still farther, when Kafur died in the year 357 a.h. Ahmed, surnamed Abu'l Fawaris, the son of Abu'l-Hasan Ali, and consequently grandson of Mu-hammed el-Ikshid, succeeded Kafur.

No other events of note took place during the lifetime of Ungur, who, having reigned fourteen years and ten days, died in the year 349 of the Hegira, leaving his brother Ali, surnamed Abu'l-Hasan, as his successor. The reign of Abu'l-Hasan Ali, the second son of Muhammed el-Ikshid, lasted but five years. Kafur was also regent during the reign of Abu'l-Hasan Ali.

Both were destroyed by Malik Kafur, the slave general of Sultan Ala-ud-Din, but the spirit of the Deccan was not broken and within a few years the brothers Bukka and Harihara founded the state of Vijayanagar, "the never-to-be-forgotten Empire" as a native scholar has aptly termed it, which for more than two centuries was the centre of Hindu political power.

He showed taste for the sciences, and encouraged scholars; he loaded the poets with benefits, and they sang his praises without measure so long as he continued his favours, but satirised him with equal vigour as soon as his munificence diminished. Invested with supreme authority, Kafur served the young prince with a devotion and fidelity worthy of the highest praise.

Alas the master! So we asked him, 'What tidings, O Kafur? and he answered 'A wall of the garden hath fallen on my master and his friends the merchants, and they are all crushed and dead! "By Allah," said my master, "he came to me but now howling, 'Alas, my mistress!

The remainder of the reign of Ungur passed peacefully, thanks to the watchfulness and wise government of Kafur. In the year 345 of the Hegira, the King of Nubia invaded the Egyptian territories, advancing to Syene, which he pillaged and laid waste.

He broke down many temples of the idolaters, and laid waste their country after which he hastened with all expedition to Beejanuggur." It is a fact that a mosque is declared to have been erected by Malik Kafur on the sea-coast in 1310, but apparently not at Ramesvaram, which lies in the extreme south of India, on the eastern coast opposite the island of Ceylon.