Kant, the German philosopher, on his clock-like rounds in Königsberg, knew something of England and writes of her: "Die englische Nation, als Volk betrachtet, ist das schätzbarste Ganze von Menschen im Verhältniss unter einander; aber als Staat gegen fremde Staaten der verderblichste, gewaltsamste, herrschsüchtigste und kriegerregendste von allen."

Finally, specially conducted by Winston, we inspected the so-called "Bird-cage," where all the English officers had been imprisoned, and the "Staat Model" School, from where our cicerone had made his escape. These quarters must have been a particularly disagreeable and inadequate residence.

Dionysius, Polybius, Livy, Plutarch, Cicero, Sallust, all shed light on important points. See also Gottling, Gesch der Rom. Staat. A large catalogue of writers could be mentioned, but allusion is only made to those most accessible to American readers.

It was not, however, until some years later, 1642, that the "Staat Huys" was built, a municipal building, with a portion of it erected especially for the housing of dangerous criminals.

For Calvinism in Switzerland: W. D. McCracken, The Rise of the Swiss Republic, 2d ed. ; F. W. Kampschulte, Johann Calvin, seine Kirche und sein Staat in Genf, 2 vols.

After a siege of five weeks the castle was surrendered to Bishop Henry of Winchester, who seems for some reason to have opposed his brother's action in the case from the beginning. Gesta Stephani, 5. W. Malm., Hist. Nov., sec. 460. Gesta Stefhani, 8. Henry of Huntingdon, 270. See Round, G. de Mandeville, 6. Round, Geoffrey de Mandeville, 250-261; and Boehmer, Kirche und Staat, 333-335.

'The state', says Treitschke, 'is the highest thing in the external society of man: above it there is nothing at all in the history of the world. There is here no room for comity of nations; for a societas totius humani generis; for international law in any true sense. What really exists is the exclusive state der geschlossene Staat and in another sense than that of Fichte.

Boehmer, Kirche und Staat, pp. 126 ff. Eadmer, Hist. Nov., p. 10. Political events had not waited for the reformation of the Church, and long before these reforms were completed, England had become a thoroughly settled state under the new king. The beginning of the year 1070 is a turning-point in the reign of William.

Gervase of Canterbury, i. 109. But see Ralph de Diceto, i. 252, n. 2, and Boehmer, Kirche und Staat, 375. Gesta Stephani, 47. The victory at Lincoln changed the situation of affairs at a blow.

This state is rigorously national: it excludes all foreign words from its vocabulary, and it would fain exclude all foreign articles from its shores in order to found a real 'national' economy such as List preached. Further, in the teaching of Treitschke this exclusive state is, 'as Machiavelli first clearly saw', essentially power: der Staat ist Macht.