In the Central and Western Mediterranean in Africa, Utica, Hippo-Zaritis, Hippo Regius, Carthage, Hadrumetum, Leptis Minor, Leptis Major, and Thapsus; in Sicily, Motya, Eryx, Panormus, Solocis; between Sicily and Africa, Cossura, Gaulos, and Melita; in Sardinia, Caralis, Nora, Sulcis, and Tharros; in the Balearic Isles; in Spain, Malaca, Sex, Abdera. 3.

The Egyptians were roused against Caesar, and, on one occasion, he saved his life by swimming; but he finally defeated and destroyed the Egyptian army. Early in 46 he landed in Africa, and, at Thapsus, annihilated the republican forces in that region. A most powerful combination was made against him in Spain, including some of his old officers and legionaries, and the two sons of Pompeius.

The ancient city, in the time of the Peloponnesian war, was chiefly built on the knob of land which projects into the sea on the eastern coast of Sicily, between two bays; one of which, to the north, was called the bay of Thapsus, while the southern one formed the great harbour of the city of Syracuse itself.

From time immemorial, the Verbascum thapsus, or great mullein, has been a trusted popular remedy, in Ireland, for the treatment of the above formidable malady. It is a wild plant most persons would call it a weed found in many parts of the United Kingdom; and, according to Sowerby's British Botany, vol. vi., page 110, is "rather sparingly distributed over England and the south of Scotland."

The mass of the defeated army threw away their arms and sued for quarter; but Caesar's soldiers were no longer the same who had readily refrained from battle before Ilerda and honourably spared the defenceless at Pharsalus. The habit of civil war and the rancour left behind by the mutiny asserted their power in a terrible manner on the battlefield of Thapsus.

The neighbourhood is rich in palm-groves and olive-groves, and the Cinyps region, regarded by Herodotus as the most fertile in North Africa, lies at no great distance to the east. Ten miles east, and a little south of Leptis Minor, was Thapsus, a small town, but one of great strength, famous as the scene of Julius Caesar's great victory over Cato.

Caesar next marches into Pontus, and defeats the son of Mithridates, who had taken part in the war against him. He then proceeds to the Roman province of Africa, where some of the Pompeian chiefs had established themselves, aided by Juba, a native prince. He over throws them at the battle of Thapsus.

No doubt the monarchy was not established for the first time on the battle-fields of Pharsalus and Thapsus; it might already be dated from the moment when Pompeius and Caesar in league had established their joint rule and overthrown the previous aristocratic constitution.

Neither they nor any other Romans in Africa liked the prospect of being passed over to the barbarians. The fugitives from Thapsus found that Utica would not be available for their purpose, and in revenge they began to massacre the citizens. Cato was still in the town. Cato was one of those better natured men whom revolution yokes so often with base companionship.

The decision at Pharsalia was in some measure owing to a panic occurring among the Pompeian cavalry; and at Thapsus, the panic terror that came upon the Pompeians gave to Caesar so easy a victory that it cost him only fifty men, while the other side were not only broken, but butchered.