But the anti-determinists wildly confuse a perverted determinism of ends with a scientific determinism of means. And only the former determinism is truly fatalistic. This confusion is to be found equally central in Henry Oldenburg's inconsequential letters to Spinoza and in Bernard Shaw's shamelessly silly Preface to Back to Methuselah.

There is as much sense and rationality in exhorting us to go back to the Realm of Nature, as there is in exhorting us to go on to the City of God. And the hue and cry that is always raised when "free-will" is denied, was raised against Spinoza. This is the starting point of Bernard Shaw's no less than of Henry Oldenburg's infuriated argument.

Our sovereign alone has protested against the seizure of the Duke of Oldenburg's territory, and even..." Count Rostopchin paused, feeling that he had reached the limit beyond which censure was impossible. "Other territories have been offered in exchange for the Duchy of Oldenburg," said Prince Bolkonski.

Oldenburg's force was but some 2,000; Pirna Saxons most of them: such a winter Oldenburg has had with these Saxons; bursting out into actual musketry upon him once; Oldenburg, volcanically steady, summoning the Prussian part, "To me, true Prussian Bursche!" and hanging nine of the mutinous Saxons. Sharply conclusive, though polite and punctual. "Send to Kur-Mainz say you?

Whereas satisfactory proof has been received by me, under date of the 11th of May last, that thenceforward all discriminating or countervailing duties of the Dukedom of Oldenburg so far as they might operate to the disadvantage of the United States should be and were abolished upon His Highness the Duke of Oldenburg's being duly certified of a reciprocal act on the part of the United States: Now, therefore, I, James Monroe, President of the United States of America, do hereby declare and proclaim that so much of the several acts imposing duties on the tonnage of ships and vessels and on goods, wares, and merchandise imported into the United States as imposed a discriminating duty of tonnage between vessels of the Dukedom of Oldenburg and vessels of the United States and between goods imported into the United States in vessels of the said Dukedom of Oldenburg and vessels of the United States are repealed so far as the same respect the produce or manufacture of the said Dukedom of Oldenburg.