The producer is a vessel lined with refractory material. At the top it has a supply opening covered by a cap, U, having a flange dipping into a sand joint. At the bottom it has an opening surrounded by inclined bars, V, which rest upon a water-pipe perforated with small holes, by which water issues to cool the bars and generate vapor.

At the front end the barrel has a flange by means of which it is bolted to the front plate, the plate having attached to it the furnace and return flue, which are of wrought iron. The front plate has also cast on it a manhole mouthpiece to which the manhole cover is bolted. In the case of the engine at Crewe, the chimney, firehole door, and front of flue had to be renewed by Mr.

If the sea should break through, the first rush of the water would sweep away the supporting legs, the iron door would fall with a crash into the flange of the wooden frame, and the greater the pressure the tighter it would fit.

This inner tube has a double flange, the outer one, which is milled, for rotating, and the inner one for carrying a glass plate. The light from the lamp is allowed to pass to some extent through the interspaces, and is by comparison a strong yellow, thus giving four principal colors. Secondary colors are formed by a combination of the rays in passing through the spot lens.

Whenever, on progressing north, the rails were at least about two inches apart, the upper flange of the north end of any rail would attract the unmarked, while the south end of its neighbor or any other of the north and south laid rails would attract the marked end.

This form of rail being found inconvenient, the flange was transferred from the rails to the wheels, and this arrangement, under various modifications has been ever since retained. These "innocent" railroads as they have been sometimes and most appropriately named, seeing that they were guiltless alike of blood and high speed were drawn by horses, and confined at first to the conveyance of coals.

The part where the cylinder stands is two feet high above the engine platform, and the elevation to the centre of the guides or the centre of the shaft is 10 inches higher than this. The metal both of the side frames and bottom flange is 1-1/4 inch thick.

This course of granite is grooved to receive the flange of the lower plates of the tower, from which lightning-conductors are to be continued to the sea. The tower is of course itself a lightning-conductor of the best kind.

In order to extract the camphor, such a tree is selected; the trunk and large stems are cut into small pieces, and subjected to distillation with steam. An iron boiler of 3 feet in diameter is placed over a small furnace, the boiler being provided with an iron flange at the top.

The malleable rails were of the kind calledfish-bellied,” and weighed 28 lbs. to the yard, being inches broad at the top, with the upper flange ¾ inch thick. They were only 2 inches in depth at the points at which they rested on the chairs, and inches in the middle or bellied part. When forming the road, the proper gauge had also to be determined. What width was this to be?