Several of the most tropical genera have no representative fossils at Navidad; and there are only single species of Cassis, Pyrula, and Sigaretus, two of Pleurotoma and two of Terebra, but none of these species are of conspicuous size. In Patagonia, there is even still less evidence in the character of the fossils, of the climate having been formerly warmer.

It is, moreover, contrasted with the Suffolk Crag by the indications it affords of an extra-European climate. Thus it contains seven species of Cypraea, some larger than any existing cowry of the Mediterranean, several species of Oliva, Ancillaria, Mitra, Terebra, Pyrula, Fasciolaria, and Conus.

Accordingly, in the marls belonging to this period at Asti, Parma, Sienna, and parts of the Tuscan and Roman territories, we observe the genera Conus, Cypraea, Strombus, Pyrula, Mitra, Fasciolaria, Sigaretus, Delphinula, Ancillaria, Oliva, Terebellum, Terebra, Perna, Plicatula, and Corbis, some characteristic of tropical seas, others represented by species more numerous or of larger size than those now proper to the Mediterranean.

Voluta triplicata, G.B. Sowerby. 5. Oliva dimidiata, G.B. Sowerby. 6. Pleurotoma discors, G.B. Sowerby. 7. Pleurotoma turbinelloides, G.B. Sowerby. 8. Fusus subreflexus, G.B. Sowerby. 9. Fusus pyruliformis, G.B. Sowerby. 10. Turritella suturalis, G.B. Sowerby. 12. Trochus laevis, G.B. Sowerby. 14. Cassis monilifer, G.B. Sowerby. 16. Pyrula distans, G.B. Sowerby. 17.

Scalaria rugulosa, G.B. Sowerby. 10. Pyrula, cast of, like P. ventricosa of Sowerby, Tank Cat. 12. Balanus varians, G.B. Sowerby. 13. Scutella, differing from the species from Nuevo Gulf.

Fusus difficilis, d'Orbigny, "Voyage, Part Pal." 5. Pyrula longirostra, d'Orbigny, "Voyage, Part Pal." 6. Pleurotoma Araucana, d'Orbigny, "Voyage, Part Pal." 7. Cardium auca, d'Orbigny, "Voyage, Part Pal." 8. Cardium acuticostatum, d'Orbigny, "Voyage, Part Pal." 9. Venus auca, d'Orbigny, "Voyage, Part Pal." 10. Mactra cecileana, d'Orbigny, "Voyage, Part Pal." 11.

Sowerby, with the Pyrula, the Venus meridionalis, the Crepidula gregaria, and the Turritella ambulacrum, and T. Patagonica. The evidence taken altogether indicates that this great tertiary formation is of considerable antiquity; but when treating of the Chilean beds, I shall have to refer again to this subject.

In like manner, it is the presence of such genera as Pyrula, Columbella, Terebra, Cassidaria, Pholadomya, Lingula, Discina, and others which give a southern aspect to the Coralline Crag shells.

No question can exist as to the tropical and marine origin of the large shells exhumed not only in the inland regions of Kentucky and Tennessee, but in the northern peninsula lying between the Ontario and Huron Lakes, or on the still remoter shores and islands of Georgian Bay, at a distance of upwards of three thousand miles from the coast of Yucatan, on the mainland, the nearest point where the Pyrula perversa is found in its native locality.