The conclusion is justified that in the century covered by the reigns of Ashurnasirbal and Shamshi-Ramman, the cult of Nin-ib must have acquired great popularity, though suffering, perhaps, an interruption during the reign of Shalmaneser II., midway between these two kings, whose favorite we have seen was Shamash.

A somewhat puzzling line, but which appears to convey the promise on the part of the penitent that if forgiven he will observe the rites demanded by the deity. Babylon. IVR 19, no. 3; Zimmern, no. 5. Like a column. The metaphor is the same as in the Biblical phrase, "column of smoke." Published by Brünnow, Zeits. f. Assyr. v. 66 seq. The king mentions his father, Shamshi-Ramman, in the hymn.

After the days of Shamshi-Ramman we hear of Nin-ib chiefly in the formal lists of gods which the later kings of Assyria, from Sargon on, are fond of placing at the beginning and end of their inscriptions.

This has long been recognized, but it is the merit of Jensen to have demonstrated that it is the east sun and the morning sun which is more especially represented by Nin-ib. On this supposition, some of the titles given to him in the inscriptions of Ashurnasirbal and Shamshi-Ramman become perfectly clear.

If this is Shamshi-Ramman III., the date of the hymn would be c. 1100 B.C. Lit., 'lifting up of thy eyes. A strong element of magic, we have seen, was always present in the hymns and prayers of the Babylonians, and even in such as contained religious sentiments of an elevated and pure character.

Ekur and Eshara being employed as synonyms, Shamshi-Ramman replaces Ekur by Eshara, and since Bel is the lord of Ekur-Eshara, Nin-ib also becomes the first-born son of Bel.