When such tine vegetable sediment is mixed, as is often the case, with clay, it becomes similar to the bituminous limestone and calcareo- bituminous shales of the coal-measures.

This change in the vegetation marks the commencement of the grand calcareo argillaceous deposit, which forms the wide extent of the Pampas, and covers the granitic rocks of Banda Oriental.

As the surface of the calcareo- argillaceous plain of Pampean formation, on the northern side of the wide valley of the Colorado, stands at about the same height with the mortar- like cemented gravel capping the sandstone on the southern side, it is probable, considering the apparent equability of the subterranean movements along this side of America, that this gravel of the Rio Negro and the upper beds of the Pampean formation northward of the Colorado, are of nearly contemporaneous origin, and that the calcareous matter has been derived from the same source.

But in Yorkshire this calcareo- arenaceous formation thickens to about 30 feet, and constitutes the lower part of the Middle Oolite, extending inland from Scarborough in a southerly direction. The number of mollusca which it contains is, according to Mr. Etheridge, 143, of which only 34, or 23 1/2 per cent, are common to the Oxford clay proper.

It cannot be ascribed to any local cause, for it takes place, not only over large areas in the Gulf of Mexico and the Coast of Florida, but in the South Atlantic and in the Pacific. For the present we must be content with the fact that, in certain areas of the "intermediate zone," greensand is replacing and representing the primitively calcareo- silicious ooze.