What about the authorities which Gieseler cites in his Ecclesiastical History Muratori, Fabronius, Machiavelli, Sabellicus, Raynaldus, Eccardus, Burchardus, etc.? A compassionate age has relegated the exact account of the moral state of the papacy in Luther's days to learned works, and even in these they are given mostly in Latin footnotes.

Raynaldus cites a Bull on that score addressed by Alexander, in the first year of his pontificate, to the bishops of Spain, enjoining them to visit with punishment all who in that kingdom should be discovered to be pursuing such a traffic. In their examination they incriminated their master the archbishop, who was consequently put upon his trial and found guilty.

Monument to Bishop Raynaldus, 1115, one of the chief of the Norman builders of Hereford. In a Perpendicular recess on the left of the door opening to the turret staircase which leads to the archive room and chapter library is an effigy said to be of Bishop Hugh de Mapenore, 1219.

The celebrated Jason Mainus, of Milan, calls attention to his "elegance of figure, his serene brow, his kingly forehead, his countenance with its expression of generosity and majesty, his genius, and the heroic beauty of his whole presence." Raynaldus, 1460. No. 31. Statura procerus, colore medio, nigris oculis, ore paululum pleniore. Hieron.