Of the conifers the species are as follows: yellow pine, pinus ponderosa; Jeffrey pine, pinus jeffreyi; sugar pine, pinus lambertiana; lodge-pole pine, pinus murrayana; white pine, pinus monticola; digger pine, pinus sabiniana; white-bark pine, pinus albicaulis; red fir, pseudotsuga taxifolia; white fir, abies concolor; Shasta fir, abies magnifica; patton hemlock or alpine spruce, tsuga pattoniana; incense cedar, libocedrus decurrens; western juniper, juniperus occidentalis; yew, taxus brevifolia.

Libocedrus, on the other hand, appears to have cast in its lot with the Sequoias. Two species, according to Heer, were with them in Spitzbergen. L. decurrens, the incense cedar, is one of the noblest associates of the present redwoods. But all the rest are in the southern hemisphere, two at the southern extremity of the Andes, two in the South-Sea Islands.

They are composed of a regular ring of strap-shaped, bright purple petals, springing from the erect bristly tube, and in the centre a disk-like cluster of rose-coloured stamens, the stigma standing well above them. In form the flowers are not unlike some of the Sunflowers or Mutisia decurrens. They are developed in summer, and on well-grown plants the display of blossom is exceptionally fine.

Eschara disticha. White chalk. a. Natural size. b. Escharina oceani. a. Natural size. b. Part of the same magnified. A branching sponge in a flint, from the white chalk. From the collection of Mr. The general absence of univalve mollusca in the white chalk is very marked. Palatal tooth of Ptychodus decurrens. Lower white chalk. Cestracion Phillippi; recent. Port Jackson.