John the Baptist, 160 sq.; the bonfires, the torches, and the burning wheels of the festival, 161; Thomas Kirchmeyer's description of the Midsummer festival, 162 sq.; the Midsummer fires in Germany, 163-171; burning wheel rolled down hill at Konz on the Moselle, 163 sq.; Midsummer fires in Bavaria, 164-166; in Swabia, 166 sq.; in Baden, 167-169; in Alsace, Lorraine, the Eifel, the Harz district, and Thuringia, 169; Midsummer fires kindled by the friction of wood, 169 sq.; driving away the witches and demons, 170; Midsummer fires in Silesia, scaring away the witches, 170 sq.; Midsummer fires in Denmark and Norway, keeping off the witches, 171; Midsummer fires in Sweden, 172; Midsummer fires in Switzerland and Austria, 172 sq.; in Bohemia, 173-175; in Moravia, Austrian Silesia, and the district of Cracow, 175; among the Slavs of Russia, 176; in Prussia and Lithuania as a protection against witchcraft, thunder, hail, and cattle disease, 176 sq.; in Masuren the fire is kindled by the revolution of a wheel, 177; Midsummer fires among the Letts of Russia, 177 sq.; among the South Slavs, 178; among the Magyars, 178 sq.; among the Esthonians, 179 sq.; among the Finns and Cheremiss of Russia, 180 sq.; in France, 181-194; Bossuet on the Midsummer festival, 182; the Midsummer fires in Brittany, 183-185; in Normandy, the Brotherhood of the Green Wolf at Jumièges, 185 sq.; Midsummer fires in Picardy, 187 sq.; in Beauce and Perche, 188; the fires a protection against witchcraft, 188; the Midsummer fires in the Ardennes, the Vosges, and the Jura, 188 sq.; in Franche-Comté, 189; in Berry and other parts of Central France, 189 sq.; in Poitou, 190 sq.; in the departments of Vienne and Deux-Sèvres and in the provinces of Saintonge and Aunis, 191 sq.; in Southern France, 192 sq.; Midsummer festival of fire and water in Provence, 193 sq.; Midsummer fires in Belgium, 194-196; in England, 196-200; Stow's description of the Midsummer fires in London, 196 sq.; John Aubrey on the Midsummer fires, 197; Midsummer fires in Cumberland, Northumberland, and Yorkshire, 197 sq.; in Herefordshire, Somersetshire, Devonshire, and Cornwall, 199 sq.; in Wales and the Isle of Man, 200 sq.; in Ireland, 201-205; holy wells resorted to on Midsummer Eve in Ireland, 205 sq.; Midsummer fires in Scotland, 206 sq.; Midsummer fires and divination in Spain and the Azores, 208 sq.; Midsummer fires in Corsica and Sardinia, 209; in the Abruzzi, 209 sq.; in Sicily, 210; in Malta, 210 sq.; in Greece and the Greek islands, 211 sq.; in Macedonia and Albania, 212; in South America, 212 sq.; among the Mohammedans of Morocco and Algeria, 213-216; the Midsummer festival in North Africa comprises rites of water as well as fire, 216; similar festival of fire and water at New Year in North Africa, 217 sq.; the duplication of the festival probably due to a conflict between the solar calendar of the Romans and the lunar calendar of the Arabs, 218 sg.; the Midsummer festival in Morocco apparently of Berber origin, 219.
Emerson's Essays, Lectures, Sermons, Speeches, etc.: In general: essays, 73, 88, 91, 92, 310; income from lectures, 176, 191, 192; lectures in England, 194-196; long series, 372; lecture-room, 374; plays and lectures, 375; double duty, 376, 377; charm, 379. American Scholar, The, 107-115, 133, 188. Anglo-Saxon Race, The, 210. Anti-Slavery Address, New York, 210-212.
The Romans destroyed the magnificent city walls and deprived Byzantium of municipal and political liberties. The fall of Byzantium was accomplished in A.D. 194-196, and when next its site became the scene of historic events a wholly new order of things had been inaugurated in the world.