PERIOD II. includes the Persian wars, 502-479 B.C.; the period of Athenian supremacy, 478-431 B.C.; the Peloponnesian war, 431-404 B.C., with the Spartan, followed by the Theban ascendency, 404-362 B.C. PERIOD III. includes the reigns of Philip and Alexander, 359-323 B.C.; the kingdoms into which the empire of Alexander was divided.